Climate change has imposed a huge burden on social systems and human welfare. It is also well-accepted that the future evolution of 21st-century climate change depends heavily on socioeconomic pathways and associated greenhouse gas emissions. Considering human behavior and societal response as explicit feedback terms is one of the forefronts of climate modeling and climate projection. A novel modeling framework is developed to couple a carbon-climate model with a social system model, which formulates the growth of renewable energy sources and carbon capture capacity as dependent on warming outcomes. This coupled model is able to address explicitly the role of two-way interactions between natural and social systems in 21st century global warming.

V. Ramanathan, Xu, Y., Versaci, A., 2021: Modelling human-natural systems interactions with implications for twenty-first-century warming. Nature Sustainability. Analysis. Nature Sustainability

Yangyang Xu and V. Ramanathan: Amplification of Future Warming Trends due to Feedbacks between Adaptation and Mitigation. Submitted to Nature in March 2023. Copy can be obtained from the authors.